The charges are linked to Madison's practice at Watertower SurgiCenter LLC in Chicago.
The South Bend Tribune reports that Madison is also medical director of Midwest Pain Clinic in Michigan City.
Prosecutors allege that Madison directed Watertower's billing staff to submit bills for unperformed procedures to private insurers and the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Workers' Compensation Programs.
Each count carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison.
Madison doesn't have an attorney.